Now a days Apple is leading in all the technology news and making technology products but Samsung is not far away from Apple. Beforehand I had pretty much deserted Google News for Apple News and individual distributer applications. Algorithms offer many benefits to the democracies of Western societies, but often in a way that have many more advantages for institutions than they do for individual users of digital technologies (Ellis 2016, online). Performing on-line reputation management for innocent individuals, whose names have been tarnished by disgruntled clients, unhappy (ex) employees, etc. is justified as well as not against enterprise ethics. Some can recognise language and patterns “almost as well as humans and even complete some tasks better than them” (Helbing et. It is advised that the business plan must be well structured to convey the module, profit forecast and estimated time of maturity. Search engines, social media, and the algorithms that operate them are now firmly embedded in the everyday fabric of Western societies, and increasingly in their democratic processes, with no indication that this is likely to change at any time in the future. Some people would probably shake their heads if they are offered these used computers because they believe that it’s as good as not having a computer at all, since it would probably break down after some time.
The essay will also discuss how algorithms are likely to affect democracy in the coming years. With such vast amounts of data moving through cyberspace constantly, it makes sense that algorithms should be employed to sort, sift through, and make sense of it all. The first use of algorithms in an online sense occurred in the early 1970s and was used for bin-packing problems in early software programs, or organising and fitting items into a set space (Fiat & Woeginger 1998, p.7). A detailed literature review of the subject of online algorithms is followed by an examination of algorithms used in Facebook, Google, Twitter, Instagram and Snapchat, with the likely effects of each of their algorithms discussed, most especially in relation to democratic processes in Western societies. Despite the many negative effects on democracy Facebook can have, it can be a positive force for it too. Algorithms used in Facebook and Google have been extensively studied individually, but there has been less research on the overall effect of algorithms in democratic processes in Western societies. Facebook and Google have a monopoly on news feeds and online search respectively, meaning any bias in the way their algorithms function can have ramifications on national and international levels.
Evidence exists that manipulation of algorithms in Facebook and Google has participated in influencing the outcomes of elections on several occasions. Facebook was the platform on which much of the alleged manipulation took place, with an estimated US$90 million spent on digital advertising to generate US$250 million in fundraising for the eventual winner (Shoval 2017, online). Manipulation of search engine rankings or social media news feeds – intentionally or organically – can have a huge impact on what voters see and think about. With democratic processes now relying so heavily on information shared online, algorithms in websites, social media and search engines have the potential to play a crucial role in democracy. As the political mechanisms of Western societies rely increasingly on the Internet for communication of information and to encourage voter participation, the way algorithms are configured to present information to the public is of great importance. The ubiquity of Internet access and the huge number of ways by which it can be accessed means it is now a “principal pillar of our information society” (Dusi et. Where is the Internet headed and how much of it will really change?
Google News search is a relatively recent addition to their standard engine – in as much as it is a search function that will scour news outlets for a specific sting of text. The post-test survey was administered after the portal closed to those whose portal usage throughout the week exceeded a certain threshold.Footnote 7 Participants were paid $1 for completing the pre-test and post-test survey, and up to an additional $3 based on how much they used the portal. Even more problematic is the way in which algorithms can falsely profile individuals as terrorists at airports, which happens at a rate of about 1500 a week in the United States (Dormehl 2014, online). The problem with this is that it’s often impossible to know how an algorithm has arrived at a decision or set of search results, and many users aren’t aware that algorithms even exist, never mind how they come to the conclusions they do. An algorithm used to generate wording for a company selling t-shirts to be sold online with the English World War II-era slogan “Keep Calm and Carry On” printed on them generated thousands of alternative options, with one result being “Keep Calm and Rape a Lot” (Baraniuk 2015, online).